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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION   403

the need to meet some practical difficulty, and is never an end
in itself. The need to do something is first in order of time :
thought comes after to define the direction of our activity and
determine the steps to be taken to secure the desired result. And
as it is in life, so must it be in education. Action should precede
thought and grow into it. That does not mean, however, that
the child should learn wholly by doing. It is possible for practical
people to be too practical, and to ignore the theory which would
emancipate them from the limits of routine and custom. To
over-emphasize action is just as much a mistake as the develop-
ment of theoretical knowledge about matters remote from direct
use at the expense of the practical intellect. The aim of education,
Dewey insists,shguld be to secure a baljnced^nteraction of the _
practical and the theoretical attitudes.. The narrowness of
individuals of strongly practical bent, on the one hand, needs
to be liberalized by arousing curiosity in regard to practical
activities. In the case of the smaller number who have a taste
for abstract topics, on the other hand, pains have to be taken to
multiply opportunities for the concrete application of ideas.
If it be asked how this combination of

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ieved under. school cpnditions^A^answer is though.
i5?v .By_c>c.cupatiQn5^JDjswey explains, is not^meant any
kind of " busy work," but modes of activity like woodwork or
"cookery which reproduce or jrun .parallel to. some .form of work
carried on in social life.   Such occupations have the. necessary ,
balance. of .actifori .arid thought.   There is involved both active
self-expression through the physical organs (hands, eyes, etc.),/
and continual observing, planning and reflection;   and in the^
background is a whole wide range of intellectual, aesthetic and
moral interests*   It is work that appeals to children.   A great
many of their own plays are simply miniature and haphazard
attempts at reproducing social occupations.   By employing oc-
cupations systematically and giving them a definite place in the
work of the school, there is ensured the healthy personal interest
in learning which is the precondition, of all real education,

Since the establishment of the Chicago University Laboratory
School many similar experiments have been made in America, (
the more important of which have been recorded by Professor
Dewey in his Schools of To-morrow*   Two principles underlie
their work : (a) that methods of educatioa must be developed